Galaxy IC 10, type Ir+ or KBm (?),
Discovered by Lewis Swift in 1887.
||00 : 20.4 (h:m)
||+59 : 18 (deg:m)
||5x4 (arc min)
IC 10 is an outlying member of the
Local Group of galaxies.
IC 10 was discovered by Lewis Swift on October 8, 1887 and included in his
seventh list of nebulae ("Swift VII") found at the Warner Observatory,
Rochester, NY (Swift 1889). Swift describes it as
"faint star involved in a very large, extremely faint nebulosity, extremely
diffuse, in line with a star of equal magnitude which with a 3rd forms a right
J.L.E. Dreyer, in the
IC catalog of 1895 (Dreyer 1895), describes it as
"faint star involved in extremely faint and very large nebula."
It was photographed by Heber D. Curtis of
Lick Observatory on October 8, 1915, but it remained to N.U. Mayall to
reveal this object's extragalactic nature in 1935.
Edwin P. Hubble was the first to consider it
as a Local Group member in 1936. Nevertheless, this
assumption could not be confirmed until the 1960s, when
Morton S. Roberts (1962) and
Gerard de Vaucouleurs and H. Ables (1965) determined
its radial velocity and did distance estimates.
Our image was obtained by Sven Kohle and Till Credner of
with the 1-meter telescope of the Hoher List observatory. It was created from
3 exposures with a 2048x2048 CCD camera, with B, V, and H-alpha filter.
The B and V images were exposed for 30 minutes each, the H-alpha image for
245 minutes. The image is copyrighted
by the observers.
Deidre A. Hunter's investigations of IC 10 with the
Hubble Space Telescope (Hunter 2001)
IC 10 as a Local Group galaxy
NED data of IC 10
SIMBAD Data of IC 10
Publications on IC 10 (NASA ADS)
Observing Reports for IC 10 (IAAC Netastrocatalog)
NGC Online data for IC 10
- Gerard de Vaucouleurs and H. Ables, 1965.
Integrated Magnitudes and Color Indices of IC 10.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 77, No. 457,
- J.L.E. Dreyer, 1895.
Index Catalogue of Nebulae Found in the Years 1888 to 1894, with Notes and
Corrections to the New General Catalogue.
Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 51, p. 185.
Reprinted 1953, London, Royal Astronomical Society.
- Edwin P. Hubble, 1936.
The realm of the Nebulae.
Yale University Press, New Haven. Pages 124, 145.
- Deidre A. Hunter, 2001.
The Stellar Population and Star Clusters in the Unusual Local Group Galaxy
The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 559, pp. 225-242 (September 20, 2001).
[ADS: 2001ApJ...559..225H] -
- N.U. Mayall, 1935.
An Extra-Galactic Object 3 deg from the Plane of the Galaxy.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 47, No . 280,
- Morton S. Roberts, 1962.
A study of neutral hydrogen in IC 10.
Astronomical Journal, Vol. 67, pp. 431-436
- Lewis Swift, 1889.
Astronomische Nachrichten, Vol. 120, No. 2859, col. 33-38.
Referred to as "Swift VII" in the IC I.
Last Modification: January 5, 2001