IC 10

Irregular Galaxy IC 10, type Ir+ or KBm (?), in Cassiopeia


Right Ascension 00 : 20.4 (h:m)
Declination +59 : 18 (deg:m)
Distance 4200.0 (kly)
Visual Brightness 10.3 (mag)
Apparent Dimension 5x4 (arc min)
Discovered by Lewis Swift in 1887.

IC 10 is an outlying member of the Local Group of galaxies.

IC 10 was discovered by Lewis Swift on October 8, 1887 and included in his seventh list of nebulae ("Swift VII") found at the Warner Observatory, Rochester, NY (Swift 1889). Swift describes it as "faint star involved in a very large, extremely faint nebulosity, extremely diffuse, in line with a star of equal magnitude which with a 3rd forms a right angled triangle." J.L.E. Dreyer, in the IC catalog of 1895 (Dreyer 1895), describes it as "faint star involved in extremely faint and very large nebula." It was photographed by Heber D. Curtis of Lick Observatory on October 8, 1915, but it remained to N.U. Mayall to reveal this object's extragalactic nature in 1935. Edwin P. Hubble was the first to consider it as a Local Group member in 1936. Nevertheless, this assumption could not be confirmed until the 1960s, when Morton S. Roberts (1962) and Gerard de Vaucouleurs and H. Ables (1965) determined its radial velocity and did distance estimates.

Our image was obtained by Sven Kohle and Till Credner of Bonn, Germany, with the 1-meter telescope of the Hoher List observatory. It was created from 3 exposures with a 2048x2048 CCD camera, with B, V, and H-alpha filter. The B and V images were exposed for 30 minutes each, the H-alpha image for 245 minutes. The image is copyrighted by the observers.

  • Deidre A. Hunter's investigations of IC 10 with the Hubble Space Telescope (Hunter 2001)
  • IC 10 as a Local Group galaxy
  • NED data of IC 10
  • SIMBAD Data of IC 10
  • Publications on IC 10 (NASA ADS)
  • Observing Reports for IC 10 (IAAC Netastrocatalog)
  • NGC Online data for IC 10


    Hartmut Frommert
    Christine Kronberg

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    Last Modification: January 5, 2001