Flammarion's Additional "Principal Star Clusters and Nebulae"

During the years 1917 to 1922, Camille Flammarion has published a series of investigations of the Messier Objects in L'Astronomie, the journal of the Société Astronomique de France. Besides systematic observations and investigations done at the "Observatoire de Juvisy," he presents a summary of the state of knowledge about the objects at that time.

In this series of articles, he also presents, in the first paper, a biography of Charles Messier, together with the story of how he obtained Messier's personal copy of his catalog. Highlights include an identification of M102 with NGC 5866 based on Messier's handwritten position, and the first addition of an object, of M104 (NGC 4594), to the catalog, based on Messier's handwritten notes on its discovery by Pierre Méchain.

Flammarion's version of the Messier List is available online.

Finishing the Messier Catalog, Flammarion continues the series, thru 1922 and 1923, with similar observations and investigations of other objects which he classifies as "Principal Star Clusters and Nebulae" visible from France with medium-sized instruments. He numbers these contributions with numbers consequent to the 104 objects in Messier's catalog. The 15 papers thus give numbers 105 to 119, with three times two NGC objects neighbored in the sky described, so a total of 18 objects: 8 open clusters, 5 planetary nebulae, 1 diffuse starforming nebula, 2 parts of a supernova remnant (the Veil nebula), and 2 galaxies. It happens, perhaps not very surprisingly, that two of the objects coincide with later identified Messier objects, namely, M47 (NGC 2422, No. 116) and M110 (NGC 205, No. 111).

The complete tabe of Flammarion's extra objects is presented here:

No.  Messier   NGC    Type  Con  RA (2000.0) Dec  Mag  Dim  Reference

105a NGC 869 OC Per 02:19.0 +57:09 4. 30 1921LAstr..35..377F 105b NGC 884 OC Per 02:22.4 +57:07 4. 30 1921LAstr..35..377F 106 NGC 6543 PN Dra 17:58.6 +66:38 9. 5.8 1921LAstr..35..429F 107 NGC 6940 OC Vul 20:34.6 +28:18 6.3 31 1921LAstr..35..460F 108 NGC 7009 PN Aqr 21:04.2 -11:22 8. 1.7 1922LAstr..36...23F 109 NGC 7662 PN And 23:25.9 +42:33 9. 2.2 1922LAstr..36...70F 110 NGC 1977 DN Ori 05:35.5 -04:52 20 1922LAstr..36..113F 111 M110 NGC 205 GE And 00:40.4 +41:41 8.0 17.4 1922LAstr..36..207F 112a NGC 663 OC Cas 01:46.0 +61:15 7.1 16 1922LAstr..36..271F 112b NGC 654 OC Cas 01:44.1 +61:53 6.5 5 1922LAstr..36..271F 113 NGC 4565 GS Com 12:36.3 +25:59 9.6 16.2 1922LAstr..36..298F 114 NGC 7293 PN Aqr 22:29.6 -20:48 12.8 1922LAstr..36..403F 115a NGC 6992 SNRp Cyg 20:56.4 +31:43 60 1922LAstr..36..440F 115b NGC 6960 SNRp Cyg 20:45.7 +30:43 70 1922LAstr..36..440F 116 M 47 NGC 2422 OC Pup 07:36.6 -14:30 4.4 30 1922LAstr..36..477F 117 NGC 7789 OC Cas 23:57.0 +56:44 6.7 16 1923LAstr..37..113F 118 NGC 2392 PN Gem 07:29.2 +20:55 10. 0.7 1923LAstr..37..262F 119 NGC 6633 OC Oph 18:27.7 +06:34 4.6 27 1923LAstr..37..458F


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