Timeline of Charles Messier (June 26, 1730 - April 12, 1817)

[CM.jpg] This timeline summarizes the most important events in the life of Charles Messier, especially of his astronomical activities. We also have a more descriptive biography of Charles Messier.
1730, June 26
Charles Messier was born in Badonviller, Lorraine, France; 10th of 12 children.
1741, September 20
Charles Messier's father, Nicolas Messier (b. September 4, 1682) dies.
The young Charles Messier observes a great comet (from Lorraine still).
1748, July 25
An annular solar eclipse is visible from France, and observed by the young Messier.
The 21 year old Charles Messier goes to Paris and gets employed by Nicholas Delisle; gets advised to astronomical observing and recording (October).
1753, May 6
Charles Messier's first documented astronomical observation of the Mercury transit
Regular appointment as Depot Clerk of the Navy.
Messier begins his search for comet Halley. First observation of M32.
Messier makes his first comet observations, following his first independent (telescopic) co-discovery of Comet 1758 De La Nux, from August 14 to November 2, and independently discovers M1, the Crab Nebula (August 28, measured September 12). Comet Halley is rediscovered by Johann Georg Palitzsch (December 25).
Messier independently discovers and observes Comet Halley (1759 I) from January 21 to June 3.
Messier discovers Comet 1759 II Messier (January 26) and co-discovers the Comet 1759 III, known as the Great Comet of 1760 (January 8). On September 11, he independently discovers the globular star cluster M2 (previously recorded by Maraldi).
Observation of a Venus transit.
Observations of Comet 1762 Klinkenberg.
Discovery of Comet 1763 Messier (September 28). Messier was almost elected to the Academy of Sciences.
Discovery of Comet 1764 Messier (January 3). His first own deep sky discovery of globular cluster M3, cataloged on May 3, probably causes him to undertake a systematical search for nebulous objects, leading to the observation and recording of the objects M3-M40, many of which were own discoveries, but several from old catalogs. Messier was made a member of the Royal Society of London.
M41 recorded (January 16). Delisle retires, Messier continues observing.
Messier discovers 1766 I Messier (March 8), co-discovers 1766 II Helfenzrieder (April 8).
Messier takes part in a 3 1/2 months ship voyage to test some new chronometers, and is absent from Paris from May 12 to September 1.
March 4: M42--M45 added to the catalog; first version finished. Messier discovers Comet 1769 Messier (August 8).
Messier discovers Comet 1770 I Lexell (June 14, named after its orbit calculator). Elected to the Academy of Sciences (June 30). On November 26, Charles Messier (then 40) married Marie-Francoise de Vermauchampt (37).
Co-discovered Comet 1770 II, called Great Comet (January 10), discovered Comet 1771 Messier (April 1). First catalog published (list of 45). Shortly after publication, M46--M49, M62.
Birth of Messier's son, Antoine-Charles (March 15), followed by the death of both Madame Messier (March 23) and their son (March 26). Observed Comet 1772 Montaigne (March 26 - April 3). Discovered M50 (April 5). Absence in Lorraine September - November.
M110 discovered but not cataloged, Comet 1773 Messier (October 12).
M51, M52; introduced to Pierre Méchain. Observed Comet 1774 Montaigne.
M53. Messier reports "specks" crossing the sun.
M54, M55.
Messier co-discovers Comet 1779 Bode (January 19). M56--M63.
M64--M79. Second version of the catalog published (up to M68, with M69 and M70 described independently in the same volume of Connoissance des Temps for 1783). Messier discovers Comet 1780 I Messier (October 27).
A very eventful year for Charles Messier, really ! At the beginning of this year, he cataloged M80--M100, and added Méchain's objects M101--M103 without personal validation, to get his list ready for its final publication in Connoissance des Temps for 1784. He added M104 very shortly after publication (May 11), and probably at that time also positions for the hitherto undetermined objects M102 and M103, as well as those nebulae mentioned at M97 (now M108 and M109). Méchain discovered M105 (March) and M106 (July). Herschel discovered Uranus on March 13, Messier got the note in April and observed it since. Méchain discovered two comets, 1781 I (June 28) and 1781 II (October 9), which Messier observed from June 28 to July 16, and from October 10 to November 5, respectively. On November 6, his work was abruptly interrupted by his accidental fall into the ice cellar which forced him to bed for more than a year.
April: The last Messier object, M107, was discovered by Pierre Méchain. August: William Herschel begins his deep-sky survey, stimulated by Messier's catalog. On September 7, he originally discovers his first deepsky object: The Saturn Nebula (NGC 7009). November 9: Messier recovers from his accident. November 12: observes Mercury transit.
Messier observes Comet 1783 Pigott, independantly co-discovered by Méchain. Herschel starts systematic deepsky scans on October 28.
"Great Comet" 1784 (discovered January 24 by Cassini and others). Chevalier d'Angos announces an unverifiable comet discovery (perhaps M27).
Messier discovers Comet 1785 I Messier-Méchain (January 7). Also observes Comet 1785 II Méchain (discovered March 11). Measures stars in Praesepe (M44) and Pleiades (M45) open clusters.
Herschel's first catalog of 1,000 "nebulous objects" published.
Messier discovers Comet 1788 I Messier (November 26)
The French Revolution begins with the "Storming of the Bastille" (July 14).
Corrects position error for M31 and M32. Measures stars in Praesepe (M44) and Pleiades (M45) open clusters. Re-observes several objects from his catalog.
Comet 1793 I Messier (September 27). "Year of Terror" in France.
Measurements for the drawing of M31, M32, and M110.
Measures stars in Praesepe (M44) and Pleiades (M45) open clusters.
Comet 1798 I Messier (April 12).
First asteroid (Ceres) discovered. Messier co-discovers Comet 1801 Pons (July 12).
1817, April 11-12
In this night, Charles Messier passed away in his 87th year, in his home in Paris.
Hartmut Frommert
Christine Kronberg

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Last Modification: March 4, 2006